HOMEInformation for Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus - START HEREAbout This SiteUPDATED! Top Ten Tips For Doctors, Written By DoctorsPulsatile Tinnitus Diagnosis CodesWEBINARS & Events8/13/2023 WEBINAR VIDEO!Pulsatile Tinnitus SoundsCured WhooshersDonate Today!Whoosher WednesdaysNews & PressWhooshers T-ShirtsPoll ResultsMap Your WhooshArchives/Previous PostsContact Us

Whooshers.com is managed by The Pulsatile Tinnitus Foundation, Inc., a public charity registered under Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 501(c)(3).
Support our community and make a tax deductible donation HERE!

Whoosh [hwoosh, hwoosh, woosh, woosh] noun 1. a loud, rushing noise, as of air or water: a great whoosh as the door opened. verb (used without object) 2. to move swiftly with a gushing or hissing noise: gusts of wind whooshing through the trees. verb (used with object) 3. to move (an object, a person, etc.) with a whooshing motion or sound: The storm whooshed the waves over the road. Also, woosh. Origin: 1840-1850; imit.

Pulsatile tinnitus is not tinnitus.
Pulsatile tinnitus is a rhythmical noise that is synchronous with the patient's heartbeat.

Archive Newer | Older

Poll Results: Have You Been Told to "Live With" Pulsatile Tinnitus?

Yes         83.3%

No           13.9%

Other        2.8%

Total Votes: 36

Thanks for voting!  Please vote in the latest Whooshers.com on the right side of this page, and don't forget to check results from previous polls on the Poll Results page.  

Wed, August 25, 2010 | link          Comments

Patient-Doctor Relations & The Pulsatile Tinnitus Patient

Unless you’re incredibly lucky, you’ve had a malady or two before the pulsatile tinnitus began.  And you’ve been to doctors’ offices before.  By the time I started seeing doctors regarding the whooshing heartbeat sound, I'd already learned the drill:

(This example is based on my experience in the United States.  Obviously, depending on where you live, this may vary.)

Call doctor’s office (with a referral?), make an appointment after being on hold for a while because of stressed office staff, wait for the day of said appointment (often days or weeks), make a mental list of symptoms and anticipate other questions that the doctor may ask (dig up necessary medical history files, if necessary), [night before appointment:] make sure the alarm is on, [morning of appointment:] wake up (with hope that I’ll wake up tomorrow with more answers than today), check the address (again) to make sure I’m going to the right office, inhale, exhale, get in my shoes, take the bus/train/car and make my way to the doctor’s office, with or without iPod or white noise earbud, depending on how loud the whoosh seems.

WHEW! That's a lot, but such is life.  If you're a pulsatile tinnitus patient, you may also have increased anxiety to deal with, in addition to the "normal" preparation for a doctor's appointment.  I mean let’s face it: if you have strep throat or a broken leg or another easy-to-diagnose issue, you can be fairly certain that you’ll leave with a prescription or a cast.  However, if you’re a pulsatile tinnitus patient, and you’ve surveyed what other pulsatile tinnitus patients have said on this site and many others, you already know that it’s not uncommon to leave the doctor’s office with no more answers than when you arrived.

A general experience at a doctor’s office might go something like this:

Check in, fill out a stack of forms, WAIT (even if we were early for our appointment), get called to the examination room, get asked boiler plate questions by the nurse, WAIT for the doctor, say hello to doctor who enters the room [determine first impression –Did the doctor smile at me? Shake my hand?], answer doctor's questions and hope that s/he has some helpful advice, be directed by doctor back to the front desk, pay insurance co-pay.  Leave.

If you’re a whoosher, at some point in the experience described above you’re also likely to:

1) be compartmentalized in a box (for example, we pulsatile tinnitus sufferers are often mistakenly boxed in with regular tinnitus sufferers) and told to “live with it,” OR 2) asked to have a diagnostic test or two, OR 3) you may be referred to another doctor.

My personal layperson view is that choices 2 or 3 should be the most common, but I don’t think this happens in reality.  Plus, each of us is different. 

Speaking for myself, going to the doctor (for just about any reason) feels a bit like going through airport security.  Even when I do everything I'm supposed to do -- get there early, remove my shoes and all metal items and change from my pockets, reveal my identification AND my boarding pass, etc. -- it often still feels like it’s ME against THEM, even though we’re all on the same side.  It feels robotic.  At the airport, we know the people behind the scanners and guard rails are there to help us, but it’s impossible not to sometimes wonder if one requirement of the job is forgetting everything you were ever taught about common decency.  I know I’m not the only one who has asked myself, is that person human? 

Don’t get me wrong, I’m not talking about discipline… I think it’s very important for airport screeners and doctors and every professional to remember what they’re trained to do.  But we’re all human.  And when pulsatile tinnitus patients look for medical attention, we’re even more vulnerable to the psychological impact of our symptoms.  

The New York Times recently published an article titled, “Not on the Doctor’s Checklist, but Touch Matters,” by Danielle Ofri, M.D.  Dr. Ofri suggests that a physical examination, where the doctor actually touches you, can be a crucial aspect of the patient-doctor relationship, even if it doesn’t directly aid in the diagnosis of the physical problem.  She writes generally, not about pulsatile tinnitus patients, but I think it’s an important point. 

I’m not a doctor, but I do feel qualified to suggest that the human interaction aspect of a doctor’s visit may very well have an impact on how the visit ends, e.g. the diagnosis and general feelings of and trust for the doctor.

The old saying, “Sticks and stones may break my bones but words can never hurt me,” is not entirely true, as far as I’m concerned.  Hearing my first doctor say, “Live with it!” before he did a single test to determine the cause of my pulsatile tinnitus, hurt a LOT.  Especially since, in my case, he was wrong. 

When you’re in a doctor’s office with pulsatile tinnitus, words matter a lot.  So does eye contact.  When you’re suffering from pulsatile tinnitus, asking for a little compassion and out-of-the box thinking is not asking too much.

There are all sorts of reasons why people go to the doctor, and there’s probably a standard checklist that doctors learn in medical school for each possible condition.  In some situations, a lot of doctors ask questions and never physically examine their patients.  The decision whether to physically examine a patient may be part of a “standard” learned in medical school.

Dr. Ofri concedes that there may not be any scientific evidence that a physical examination provides any quantifiable benefit.  Does that matter?  As she says, “touch is inherently humanizing,” and “[a] physical exam is likely to produce a bond, if not a diagnosis.”

When the person walks into the examination room with a white coat, the patient understands that the doctor has studied hard for many years and paid a lot of money to become an expert.  But sometimes that’s not enough.  Dr. Ofri’s premise is that if a doctor doesn’t address some other needs of the patient, it can be damaging to the doctor-patient relationship and maybe even to a proper diagnosis. 

She says:

“I cringe whenever our hospital administration refers to the doctors and nurses as “health care providers.” That term always makes me feel like a soft drink dispenser at Burger King.  I’m not a “provider”; I’m a person, a doctor.  And my patient is not a “customer” or “client."  We are not transacting business.”

Also, while I agree with Dr. Ofri that the personal touch adds an important humanizing layer to doctor/patient relations, so does interpersonal communication like eye contact and compassion.  So does an acknowledgement that you may not be the best doctor to treat a pulsatile tinnitus patient, instead of immediately throwing in the towel and saying, “live with it.”  Hey, none of us is perfect. 

I would go even further… when a patient visits a doctor, it’s an opportunity for interaction from which both sides can gain something: I can get answers to my pulsatile tinnitus, and the doctor can get experience seeing a rare set of symptoms that only 3% of tinnitus sufferers experience.  I’m a mystery… who doesn’t like a challenge like that?!  Aren’t lawyers challenged by a once-in-a-lifetime case?  Aren’t actors challenged by a rare opportunity to play a unique role in film or television?  Aren’t you gratified at work when your boss approaches you with a challenge instead of the run-of-mill duties (well, okay, I guess it depends how much you like your job. Hmmm)? 

Dr. Ofri’s article touched a chord with me and I think it will for you, too.  It was a long time before I found a doctor who simply looked up from the clipboard to me in the eye, spent more than five minutes with me in the room, and put his or her hand on my shoulder to tell me something comforting. 

Despite all my rants on this site, I really am not a very needy person, and I certainly don’t need or want anyone to hold my hand like my mother did when I was three years old or lie to me just to tell me what I want to hear.  But a smile once in a while, a hand on the shoulder, a nod of understanding, or an ear of appreciation -- beyond the allotted, standard five minutes -- for the anxiety I’m living with, would be nice. 

It may not just be nice; it may even play a significant part in my (our) diagnosis, treatment and (soon, I hope) recovery from the cause of pulsatile tinnitus symptoms.

I'd like to end by thanking all the doctors out there who ARE empathetic toward pulsatile tinnitus patients, like this one that I referred to recently.  They are out there, and they do not receive enough credit (or referrals!).  Paying attention to human needs is the crux of stories like these.  I hope other doctors and patients like you read them.  


"Not on the Doctor's Checklist, but Touch Matters," Danielle Ofri, M.D., The New York Times, August 3, 2010.

"Vital Signs: An Unwelcome Ringing," by Christopher Linstrom, M.D., Discover Magazine, April 2010. 

Sat, August 21, 2010 | link          Comments

Another Pulsatile Tinnitus Patient Cured. Another Possible Cause: Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistula

If the title of this article published recently in the medical journal, "Neurosurgery" by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, is any indication,

"Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: A Technical Case Report"

is a topic and case report that should be reviewed with your doctor. 

While there is too much medical lingo here to interpret without a medical degree, what is clear from the abstract (aka, a summary of the article) is that this is yet another case of pulsatile tinnitus being diagnosed and cured.  Only the abstract is available for free; your doctor may be able to access the entire article for a fee. 

This particular patient is a 63-year-old woman who started experiencing right-sided pulsatile tinnitus after a bicycle accident.  A normal CT scan did not reveal the cause, but doctors used a "C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography," and were able to identify and fix the cause of the whooshing. 

The abstract even says, "[the] patient's symptoms resolved immediately after the procedure."

Another whoosher cured!  Anyone who tells you that there is no cure for pulsatile tinnitus is not paying attention to articles like these.  Some causes can be identified and cured. 

Meanwhile, I'll add this to our list of cured whooshers

There is hope!

Source: "Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: A Technical Case Report," Sato, Kenichi MD, PhD; Matsumoto, Yasushi MD; Kondo, Ryushi MD, PhD; Tominaga, Teiji MD, PhD, Neurosurgery: August 2010 - Volume 67 - Issue 2 - p 467–470.

Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Kohnan Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan (Sato) Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Kohnan Hospital, Sendai, Japan (Matsumoto) (Kondo) Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan (Tominaga).

Sat, August 14, 2010 | link          Comments

A Whoosher Looks for Answers -- An Update on Blondie

People with pulsatile tinnitus search for answers.  We're like jitterbug investigators.  We have all sorts of diagnostic tests, sign myriads of medical forms, try to explain what a "whoosh" sounds like to someone who can't hear it (and may not even really care but has to ask) and, more often than not, go home with no more information than when we woke up that day.  Some doors close in our faces, others open slightly and then slam right back in our faces.  Sometimes the door slams in our faces and then the screen door slaps us on the way out.  It's enough to make anyone crazy!

But then, just when you lose all hope, sometimes you find a doctor and a medical team who understand pulsatile tinnitus and its long list of possible causes.  "Let's try this," they say.  Welcome words to someone who's heard "live with it," too many times! 

Many of you know our whoosher friend Blondie, at Tales From Clark Street.  Blondie has blogged about her experience with pulsatile tinnitus since it began over three years ago.  If you haven't already had the chance, take some time to read through her posts. 

In a couple weeks, Blondie is having a medical procedure to try to get to the bottom of her whooshing.  I wish her all the best, and I know all the whooshers out there do, too!! 

In the spirit of whoosher support, she's asked for some funny and supportive haiku she can take with her to the hospital.  Post your pulsatile tinnitus support haiku on Blondie's site or leave one here!

Dear Whoosher doctor:
We're rooting for you to find
Blondie's whoosh culprit!

To see previous Whooshers.com posts written by and about Blondie, do a search for "Blondie" in the search box at the top of this site or click here.  

Wed, August 11, 2010 | link          Comments

Another Whoosher Cured! Another Possible PT Cause: Carotid Artery Stenosis

There are already a couple articles and personal stories posted on this site about carotid artery stenosis. 

This medical journal article from 2006 discusses another case of a whoosher with carotid artery stenosis, which was identified and fixed.

Pulsatile tinnitus is distinguishable from regular tinnitus.  It is possible (and may even be likely) that the cause of pulsatile tinnitus can be determined and remedied. 

If your doctor insists that there is no cure for pulsatile tinnitus, you may want to refer them to the list of stories about cured whooshers we've compiled over the past year.  And discuss medical journal articles like this with them. 

Doctors, before you tell your pulsatile tinnitus patients to "live with it," have you ruled out all these possible causes?

Sun, August 1, 2010 | link          Comments

Archive Newer | Older



Promote Your Page Too

Follow Whooshers
         on Twitter


Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus, Dr. Maksim Shapiro, NYU Neurointerventional Radiology Section, NYU Langone Medical Center - neuroangio.org

Radiation Dose Chart - American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Resources Page: Click here for an interactive dose chart for various medical diagnostic tests. A downloadable and printable version is also available on this page. Discuss with your doctors.

Find a Neurotologist: American Neurotological Society (ANS) Membership Roster

Find a Neurointervention Specialist: Society of Neurointerventional Surgery (SNIS)- Click on "Doctor Finder"

Find a Neuro-Ophthalmologist: The North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Site: Neuroangio.org - Your neurovascular education and information resource. Patient Information.

UCSF Pulsatile Tinnitus Clinic

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Differential Diagnosis and Radiological Work-Up," Sjoert A. H. Pegge, Stefan C. A. Steens, Henricus P. M. Kunst, and Frederick J. A. Meijer, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (SEE TABLE 1).

Presentation: "Algorithm for Evaluation of Rhythmic Tinnitus," Douglas E Mattox, MD, Patricia Hudgins, MD, Jahrsdoerfer Lecture, University of Virginia, March 25, 2010. (This link is to the abstract/summary)

Presentation: "Imaging of the Patient with Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Dec 2013. (NEW! Mentions Pulsatile Tinnitus and Whooshers.com. Republished with Permission.)

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus: Diagnostic Pearls and Potential Pitfalls," B. S. Purohit, R. Hermans, K. Op de beeck; 1SINGAPORE/SG, 2Leuven/BE, European Society of Radiology, 2014.

Article: "Imaging In Pulsatile Tinnitus : When Should It Ring A Bell?" G. Bathla1, V. Chong; 1singapore/SG, 2Singapore/SG, European Society of Radiology, 2012."

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Contemporary Assessment and Management," Aristides Sismanis, Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery: October 2011 - Volume 19 - Issue 5 - p 348357 doi: 10.1097/MOO.0b013e3283493fd8, Otology and neuro-otology: Edited by Myles L. Pensak.

NEW Article: "Emergence of Venous Stenosis as the Dominant Cause of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Eytan RazErez NossekDaniel Jethanamest, Vinayak Narayan, Aryan Ali, Vera Sharashidze, Tibor Becske, Peter K. Nelson, Maksim Shapiro, Originally published8 May 2022 https://doi.org/10.1161/SVIN.121.000154, American Heart Association Journal - Stroke: Vascular and Interventional Neurology. 2022;0:e000154

Article: "Temporal Bone: Vascular Tinnitus," William W.M. Lo and M. Marcel Maya, Vascular, pp.1361-1374, 2003.

Article: "Diagnostic Clues in Pulsatile Tinnitus (Somatosounds)," Carlos Herraiza and José Miguel Aparicioa, Unidad de Acúfenos; Instituto ORL Antolí-Candela, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Otorrinolaringología, Fundación Hospital Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain; Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Quirón, Madrid, Spain, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2007;58(9):426-33. This is a link to the article abstract.

Article: "How I Struggled with (PULSATILE) Tinnitus," The Story of Actor Graham Cole, Daily Mail Online, January 10, 2007.

Article: "I Got Lifesaving OP for Whooshing Thanks to US Help," David Powell, Daily Post UK, DPW West, Feb 19, 2013.

Article: "Vital Signs: An Unwelcome Ringing," by Dr. Christopher Linstrom, Discover Magazine, April 2010. (About a cured patient with pulsatile tinnitus symptoms!)

Article: "Tinnitus Highlights Poor Doctor Patient Communication," Martin Young, MBChB, FCS(SA), Diagnosis and Treatment, KevinMd.Com, November 2010.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Recent Advances in Diagnosis," Aristides Sismanis MD, Wendy R. K. Smoker, MD, The Laryngoscope, Volume 104, Issue 6, pages 681-688, June 1994. ABSTRACT (Summary)

Article: "Neuroradiologic Assessment of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL: Dr Kircher and Dr Leonetti; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI: Dr Standring; Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Chicago, IL. Sept. 22-24, 2008. (CLICKING THIS LINK WILL DOWNLOAD THE PDF FILE)

Article: "Imaging of Tinnitus: A Review," Jane L. Weissman, MD and Barry E. Hirsch, MD, Radiology, August 2000.

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus," G. Madania and S.E.J. Connor, Clinical Radiology, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 319-328 (March 2009).

Article: "Imaging of the Patient With Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, December 31, 2013. (NEW! Mentions Whooshers.com and PULSATILE tinnitus as well.)

Article: "Imaging of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 74 Patients," Guner Sonmez, C Cinar Basekim, Ersin Ozturk, Atilla Gungor, Esref Kizilkaya, Clinical Imaging, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 102-108 (March 2007). (This is an abstract/summary-you have to pay to see the article in its entirety)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 84 Patients," Daniel Waldvogel, Heinrich P. Mattle, Matthias Sturzenegger and Gerhard Schroth, Journal of Neurology, Volume 245, Number 3, 137-142, DOI: 10.1007/s004150050193, November 12, 1997.

Article: "Role of Angiography in the Evaluation of Patients With Pulsatile Tinnitus," Edward J. Shin, MD; Anil K. Lalwani, MD; Christopher F. Dowd, MD, Laryngoscope 110: November 2000. (PDF FILE)

Article: "Angioplasty and Stenting for Intractable Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by Dural Venous Sinus Stenosis: A Case Series Report," Li Baomin, Shi Yongbing, and Cao Xiangyu, Dept of Neurosurgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Otol Neurotol. 35.366-370. Dec 2014.

Article: "CT Angiography as a Screening Tool for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: Feasibility and Test Characteristics," J. Narvid, H.M. Do, N.H. Blevins and N.J. Fishbein, American Journal of Neuroradiology 32:446-453, March 2011.

Article: "Brain Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (BDAVF)," Patient Information, www.NeuroAngio.org

Article: "Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: A Technical Case Report," Sato, Kenichi MD, PhD; Matsumoto, Yasushi MD; Kondo, Ryushi MD, PhD; Tominaga, Teiji MD, PhD, Neurosurgery: August 2010 - Volume 67 - Issue 2 - p 467470.

Article (Abstract): "A Convenient Sonographic Technique for Diagnosis of Pulsatile Tinnitus Induced by a High Jugular Bulb," The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Minoru Nakagawa, MD, Norimitsu Miyachi, MLT and Kenjiro Fujiwara, MD, Department of Neurosurgery (M.N., K.F.) and Clinical Laboratory (N.M.), Kosei General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan, J Ultrasound Med 27:139-140 0278-4297, 2008.

Article: "Surgical Treatment of the High Jugular Bulb in Patients with Ménières Disease and Pulsatile Tinnitus," V. Couloigner, A. Bozorg Grayeli, D. Bouccara, N. Julien and O. Sterkers, European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Volume 256, Number 5, 224-229, DOI: 10.1007/s004050050146 (ABSTRACT)

Article: "Brain AVM," (arteriovenous malformation), MayoClinic.com

Article: "Chiari Malformation," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Ménière's Disease," National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)

Article: "TMJ Disorders," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Anemia," American Society of Hematology, Hemotology.org

Article: "Pseudotumor Cerebri," (also called Benign Intracranial Hypertension) MayoClinic.com

Article: "Pulse-Synchronous Tinnitus," The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

Article: "Coarctation of the Aorta," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Man Cured of Hearing His Eyeballs Move," www.bbc.co.uk, July 27, 2011. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS)

Article: "Diagnosis and Cure of Venous Hum Tinnitus," Laryngoscope, Chandler JR, 93(7):892-5, July 1983.

Article: (Abstract) "Sinus Wall Reconstruction for Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence: A Standardized Surgical Procedure for a Range of Radiographic Findings," Dr. DJ Eisenman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Otology Neurotology, 32(7):1116-9; September 2011.

Article: (Abstract) "Awake Embolization of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum Causing Pulsatile Tinnitus: Simultaneous Confirmative Diagnosis and Treatment," Park YH, Kwon HJ, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Sep;17(3):376-9. Epub 2011 Oct 17. (NEW!)

Article: "A New Therapeutic Procedure for Treatment of Objective Venous Pulsatile Tinnitus," Sanchez TG, Murao M, Medeiros HRT, Kii M, Bento RF, Caldas JG, et al. Int Tinnitus J. 2002;8(1):54-57.

Article: "Glomus Tympanicum," The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 362:e66, Number 22, June 3, 2010.

Article: "Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus Following an Upper Mediastinal Lymph Node Resection," Wang YZ, Boudreaux JP, Campeau RJ, Woltering EA, South Med J. 2010 Apr;103(4):374-7.

Article: (Abstract) "Dissection of the Internal Carotid Artery After SCUBA-Diving: A Case Report and Review of the Literature," Franz Hafner, MD,* Thomas Gary, MD,* Froehlich Harald, MD,* Ernst Pilger,* Reinhard Groell, PD,w and Marianne, Brodmann* "Neurologist. 17(2):79-82, March 2011. (NEW!)

Article: "Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula," Bobby S. Korn, M.D., Ph.D., and Kang Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2011; 364:e15, February, 24, 2011. (WARNING: GRAPHIC IMAGES)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus Cured by Mastoidectomy," Duvillard C, Ballester M, Redon E, Romanet P., Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hôpital Général, Dijon, France, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, September 2004.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Symptom of Chronic Subclavian Artery Occlusion," Marcio Francisco Lehmann, Charbel Mounayer, Goetz Benndorf, Michel Piotin, and Jacques Moret, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:19601963, September 2005 (PDF).

Article: "Carotid Endarterectomy Relieves Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with Severe Ipsilateral Carotid Stenosis," J Kirkby-Bott, H.H Gibbs, European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 651-653, June 2004.

Article: "MR Angiography Imaging of Absence Vertebral Artery Causing of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Case Report," *Mehmet Cudi Tuncer; **Yekta Helbest Akgül & *Özlen Karabulut,* Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbak¹r, Turkey.** Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Özel Diyarbakr Hospital, 21100, Diyarbakr, Turkey, International Journal of Morphology, v.28 n.2 Temuco Jun. 2010."

Article: "Endovascular Treatment of Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm Presenting as Devastating Pulsatile Tinnitus. A Case Report and Review of Literature." Mehanna R, Shaltoni H. Morsi H, Mawad M., Interv Neuroradiol. 2010 Dec;16(4):451-4. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

"Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by an Aneurysm of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus: A New Case Report and Review of Literature," Lenck S, Mosimann PJ, Labeyrie MA, Houdart E., Department of Neuroradiology, hôpital Lariboisière, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France, J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct;39(4):276-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Sep 29. (NEW!)

Article: "Intractable Tinnitus and Sensorineural Deafness Cured by Surgical Correction of Coarctation of Aorta," S. Rathinam, A.M. Pettigrew, J.C.S. Pollack, Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 3:431-433 (2004).

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus," Don McFerran FRCS Consultant Otolaryngologist Essex County Hospital, Colchester, British Tinnitus Association, October 2007.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus and Dural Arteriovenous Malformation (Dural AVM)," G. A. J. Morrison, The Journal of Laryngology & Otology (1989), 103:1073-1075 Cambridge University Press (ABSTRACT).

Article: "Medical Mystery: Giving Birth Didn't Ease a Woman's Dangerous Hypertenstion," Sandra G. Boodman, The Washington Post, October 17, 2011.

Article: "That Noise Wasn't Just Tinnitus," Sandra G. Boodman, Special to The Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Article: "What's That Noise In Her?" H. Lee Kagan, Discovery Magazine, January 2006. (About a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and her doctor whose patience and persistence paid off).

Article: "The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2009

Article: "Diseases and Conditions/ Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)," Cleveland Clinic. Lists symptoms, details, treatments, and resources including Whooshers.com.

Article: Unraveling Pulsatile Tinnitus in FMD: A Report of the United States Registry For Fibromuscular Dysplasia."

Video: "A Rare Disease That May Be Underdiagnosed," Thomas M. Burton, June 26, 2009 (Hear an example of a whooshing sound in this short video)

Whooshers.com Pulsatile Tinnitus Sounds (Real Ones Recorded by Real Whooshers!)

Audio: Having trouble describing the sound you hear to others? Listen to this collection of sounds that whoosh and see if you can find a match to yours! Demonstrations: Heart Sounds & Murmurs, from the University of Washington Department of Medicine

Whooshers.com Review: SleepPhones- Soft, comfortable headphones to help mask the whoosh for a good night's sleep.

Replace "ringing" with "whooshing," and here it is: our theme song.