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Whoosh [hwoosh, hwoosh, woosh, woosh] noun 1. a loud, rushing noise, as of air or water: a great whoosh as the door opened. verb (used without object) 2. to move swiftly with a gushing or hissing noise: gusts of wind whooshing through the trees. verb (used with object) 3. to move (an object, a person, etc.) with a whooshing motion or sound: The storm whooshed the waves over the road. Also, woosh. Origin: 1840-1850; imit.

Pulsatile tinnitus is not tinnitus.
Pulsatile tinnitus is a rhythmical noise that is synchronous with the patient's heartbeat.

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Another Pulsatile Tinnitus Cause & Solutions: Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence

Sigmoid sinus diverticulum is a cause of pulsatile tinnitus that we have already explored here and here, but lately I have heard some very promising news from both patients and doctors about this cause and possible solutions that I want to share.  

In this recent study (the link is to the abstract/summary, so ask your doctors to access the full report), Dr. Eisenman in Baltimore, Maryland indicates that surgical intervention of pulsatile tinnitus (also called pulse-synchronous tinnitus) may be highly successful.  This report describes 13 patients, all of whom experienced pulsatile tinnitus as a result of sigmoid sinus diverticulum, and all of whom reported no more whooshing after surgery.  That's 13 Cured Whooshers, folks!

And there may be additional options for sigmoid sinus diverticulum patients to consider.  Like the one in this study, also published recently.  Doctors YH Park and HJ Kwon in Korea indicate in this study that an embolization procedure corrected this 31-year old patient's pulsatile tinnitus symptom. 

Interesting, too, is that the diagnosis of the same cause was determined via different means for different patients.  It appears that CT scans (CTA/CTV) as well as cerebral angiograms were the tools used to diagnose the same cause. From the limited details provided in the summaries, it seems that a CT scan is often done first, presumably because it is a less invasive test than a cerebral angiogram, and then the angiogram may be done to confirm the diagnosis and (if this method is chosen) complete the embolization process. Sometimes the diagnosis and treatment may be done in a single procedure (as was the case in the second study above).  It depends on the precise diagnosis, cause, the doctor's insight and the patient's educated understanding of his or her options.  That's why I think reading these reports and reviewing them with our doctors, so they may further explain their complexities, is so important. 

What we already know is that there are many possible cause of pulsatile tinnitus.  Each cause is different, and these many reports of patients with this particular cause indicate that indeed two people with the same underlying cause may undergo different procedures to diagnose it and to correct it, depending on factors such as medical history, individual circumstances and doctors' inclinations.  Please discuss and review all tests and options for correction, including their risks/benefits, with your doctors to determine if this is a possible cause to look into and, if so, how it may be determined and corrected.  

So we end the year and begin a new one with stories of 14 Cured Whooshers!  The second study above indicated that this cause is rare, which may very well be true, although I have heard personally from several more patients in recent months with the same cause and positive results.  Maybe instead of "rare," the condition is better described as "rarely diagnosed," as is the case with many other causes of pulsatile tinnitus.  Perhaps the research is picking up regarding this cause, and that's nice to know!

If you are a patient with sigmoid sinus diverticulum and/or dehiscence, I'd love to hear from you.  Doctors indicate that the subtleties of this cause can be -and often are- easily missed on films, so it's very important to see a doctor who is familiar with this cause and the medical research, much of which is recent.  After all, the success of a diagnostic test depends on the cause(s) it is designed to detect ALONG WITH the eyes looking at the films.  

These two new reports will be added to the Cured Whooshers page.  Hooray for more cured whooshers and the doctors who have gone to great lengths to help them!



Article: (Abstract) "Sinus Wall Reconstruction for Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence: A Standardized Surgical Procedure for a Range of Radiographic Findings," Dr. DJ Eisenman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Otology Neurotology, 32(7):1116-9; September 2011.

Article: (Abstract) "Awake Embolization of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum Causing Pulsatile Tinnitus: Simultaneous Confirmative Diagnosis and Treatment," Park YH, Kwon HJ, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Sep;17(3):376-9. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Sat, December 31, 2011 | link          Comments

Top Ten Gift Ideas For Pulsatile Tinnitus Relief

If you're a Whoosher, here are some ideas --products and gestures-- for your holiday wish list. And if you aren't a Whoosher but you know one, take a look at the list of Whoosher-Wants!

Several Whooshers contributed ideas and feedback for this post, so thank you!   Please free free to add more to the "Comments" section at the end of this post. 

Happy Holidays!!  

10.  A Good Pair Of Earplugs

Sometimes when an earplug is placed in the ear, the sound of the whoosh subsides. This is especially helpful when trying to get to sleep or while reading.  Ear muffs may work, too!

9.  A White Noise Machine, NOT A "Sound" Machine

White noise is often the best noise to mask the pulsing sound of pulsatile tinnitus, because it provides a steady sound that masks the pulsing rhythm.  For many of us, it is the rhythm of pulsatile tinnitus that bothers us even more than the volume of the sound.  As one of our Whooshers put it, the goal is a "soft hum."

Another great option is a white noise audio file (click here to download one for free!) that can be played on an iPod, iPhone, or MP3 player.  Help your Whoosher download and play the audio file.  

Sound machines that play animal sounds (crickets, frogs, etc.) or ocean sounds are not usually helpful because those are rhythmic sounds that compete with our whooshing sound, so please don't buy us one of those! 

8.  SleepPhones

A great product that provides a method for listening to white noise (or any other sound/music of choice) while comfortably fitted around your head.  I like this product best for listening to white noise while sleeping. It's a smart alternative to a sound pillow.  Here is a link to the Whooshers.com review.

7.  A Whooshers.com T-Shirt

Increase pulsatile tinnitus awareness while wearing this comfortable shirt! (It's too late to order for Christmas 2011, but if you're willing to wait until the beginning of Jan 2012 we'll have more available then!) 

6.  A Luxurious Bubble Bath

Some Whooshers report finding relief when their heads are underwater.  Steady water flowing, in the shower or bath, also sometimes masks the whoosh.  This great suggestion is from a fellow Whoosher: Fill the bath with bubbles, sink your head in the bubbles and the popping sometimes drowns the whooshing.  

5.  Turn Up The TV When We Ask You To, And Don't Keep Asking Why

It sounds like a small thing, but it's not.

4.  Accompany Us To Doctors' Appointments

We may not ask you to, but most of us appreciate the company.  You may even be able to help organize medical bills, papers, etc. 

3.  Ask Us How We're Doing

Pulsatile tinnitus can be a very isolating symptom, especially since it is not visible.  It is easy to forget that someone suffers from it, and how much.  It's probably not a good idea for us to dwell on it too much, but asking us once in a while how we're doing and really listening to our answer helps us cope. If your Whoosher had a doctor's appointment, ask how it went.  Encourage your Whoosher to try to find an audio file that sounds like the whoosh s/he hears, so you can listen to it and understand and bit more what it sounds like (and how annoying it is!). 

2.  Relieve Us Of One Stressful Chore A Day

For many of us, an increase in stress can increase the intensity of the whoosh.  By taking something off your Whoosher's plate you could really help him/her cope. 

1.  Listen And Learn

The best thing a Whoosher can receive is comfort that those around us try to understand this unusual symptom we deal with and how it affects us.  Listen and learn more about pulsatile tinnitus on Whooshers.comUnderstand that pulsatile tinnitus is NOT regular tinnitus.  It is a rare symptom.  Participate with us on Whoosher Wednesdays and help our community get more attention and support!  

Sun, December 18, 2011 | link          Comments

Another Possible Pulsatile Tinnitus Cause & Another Cured Whoosher: Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)

Another whoosher's underlying cause has been diagnosed and treated. Yep, another Cured Whoosher!  Her name is Karen, and her story of challenges and hope was highlighted recently in an extraordinary article in The Washington Post.  Karen reached out to me recently, and I'm so glad she did.  She provided Whooshers.com with more whooshing details at the bottom of this post, so be sure to read all the way to the end!

The cause of Karen's pulsatile tinnitus is Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD).

According to the Fibromuscular Dysplasia Society of America (FMDSA), FMD is a "disease [that] causes one or more arteries in the body to have abnormal cell development in the artery wall." Most of those affected with FMD are women.  There is no cure for FMD, but there is treatment.  Also, "Many people with FMD do not have any symptoms or signs on physical examination and are diagnosed by accident during a radiology scan for another problem."

For FMDSA's thorough information page, including symptoms, causes and treatments, click here.  FMDSA is a non-profit organization of wonderful people that work tirelessly to increase awareness of the disease.  They have an impressive and growing network of doctors and patients that band together to help people who would otherwise feel isolated. 

Before I tell you more about Karen's story, I have to share a little side story:

I learned about FMD a few years ago upon receiving an email from Tom Burton, a writer at The Wall Street Journal about an article he had just published.  Mr. Burton's article, "The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," and the accompanying video presented what I thought was an exceptional insight into FMD.

The thing was, Mr. Burton contacted me only a few hours after I launched Whooshers.com, before the word had gotten out yet that Whooshers.com was up and running.  How did he find it, and so quickly?  I hadn't even told my family I'd launched the site yet. I wasn't sure if anyone would ever find it, much less a reporter.  What I didn't know then was that the email from Mr. Burton about FMD began what would be a steady stream of emails about possible and "rare" or "rarely diagnosed" causes of pulsatile tinnitus.

Throughout Mr. Burton's piece are references to the "whooshing" and "swishing" and "swooshing" sound experienced by many FMD patients.  In the video, you can even HEAR one patient's whoosh!  Mr. Burton recognized that the symptom that was the topic of Whooshers.com could be a symptom of FMD, and I'm very glad he gave me the heads up so I could put up links to his piece and the FMDSA resources to share with you all.

I still don't know how Mr. Burton found me, but I was very intrigued by his message and the link to his article.  Also?  I must add that I was a bit freaked out because the story indicated that FMD can be fatal if not properly identified and treated. So, I thought, why wasn't the possibility of FMD even mentioned to me before by my doctors? 

By the time I read Mr. Burton's story, I had several diagnostic tests done, but I hadn't yet been checked out for FMD, which, according to the article and FMDSA, may affect far more people than once thought.  Sometimes pulsatile tinnitus is the only symptom of FMD, and, even in cases of FMD, pulsatile tinnitus is a symptom that is often disregarded. 

I made an appointment with a cardiologist and had some fairly straightforward tests to rule out FMD.  The thing is, your doctor needs to be familiar with characteristics and details of FMD to detect FMD, and few are.  If you experience some of the symptoms of FMD check out the resources at the end of this post and discuss them with your doctors. Also, FMDSA has many links to medical reports that your doctor can read if s/he is not familiar with the disease, and they have information about doctors who are familiar with FMD.

While there is no cure for FMD, it may in many cases be treatable with medication and/or medical procedures. Sometimes, if the FMD patient experiences pulsatile tinnitus, the treatment may even make the whooshing go away.  

Which brings me to Karen, an FMD patient and Cured Whoosher. Among other harrowing symptoms, page two of the article in The Washington Post reveals that she experienced pulsatile tinnitus.  

UNFORTUNATELY (this drives me bonkers) for us, the writer of the piece does not use the term "pulsatile tinnitus," however Karen described the symptom as well as she could have: loud pounding in her ear, which sounded like a heartbeat; whooshing sound.  An ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist's response to this symptom was, "Everyone can hear their heartbeat." 

I know a LOT of you have heard that same response.  Karen says she was also told to lose weight to stop the whooshing, which is another recommendation that many whooshers receive, often without a clear and convincing reason that doing so may remedy the problem. In fact, many people with FMD are in tip-top physical shape and exercise regularly.  Weight is sometimes a factor, but it depends on the cause.

But Karen didn't hear a sound that "everyone can hear," nor did she need to lose weight to stop her symptom.  She had FMD, which was misdiagnosed for too long and required treatment.  She kept searching and eventually found answers. Her treatment continues and her whooshing is GONE. 

I'm grateful for The Washington Post article and The Wall Street Journal article, but *why oh why* isn't the "whooshing" called by its name:  PULSATILE TINNITUS?  There have been so many missed opportunities to expose our symptom, in articles published worldwide, like this one that was highlighted recently on Whooshers.com and papers worldwide.  They don't mention the term pulsatile tinnitus!?! While the symptom is described very well - we even hear it in the video I referenced above - not referring to it by its (bad, but we'll take it) name is a BIG problem when it comes to diagnosis and treatment.  NOT everyone experiences pulsatile tinnitus; it is a rare symptom that warrants medical evaluation. FMD is just one of many, many possible causes of pulsatile tinnitus, and the word MUST start getting out that it's a real symptom with a real name. 

But I guess, for now, we'll take whatever exposure we can get.  Today I'm glad to report that we have yet another Cured Whoosher! Karen's story will be added to the growing list of others.  It gives us all hope.  Hope!

And below, in her own words, Karen shares her story in more detail as it pertains to the whooshing.  

Karen, thanks for sharing your story with us and with The Washington Post!  Your effort to increase awareness about FMD and pulsatile tinnitus will no doubt help many people!  I'm sure it already has.

Here is Karen's story for Whooshers.com:

I have had pulsatile tinnitus (PT) probably forever.  I did not know what is was called until it finally went away!  Here is my story.  
I first became aware of my PT (and concerned about it) some time in my 30's.   I had always heard my heart beat in my ear so I thought every one must hear it.   I called it "pounding" and I would tell people and physicians that I would have a pounding headache and the pounding would sound like my heart beat in my ears.  I recall feeling dizzy with the pounding.  It was whooshing - and perhaps that would have been a better description, but I called it "pounding."  I was becoming more and more dizzy with terrible migraine headaches. 

The whooshing (pounding) would come and go but I would be aware of it when lying down, or turning my head to the side.  During those years I was taking many medicines that would either increase heart rate, or increase blood pressure - but I was unaware that the medicines I was taking were excessive and combined dangerously.  I actually thought every one had whooshing in their head and was told on one occasion by a Neuro ENT that every one could hear their heartbeat in their ear.  I went to see him but he ended up ruling out vertigo and bad visual ocular reflexes, as I felt the dizziness and pounding in my ears when I moved my eyes as well.
Years passed and I became used to the pounding. It negatively impacted my sleep, my attention and ability to focus.  When I became pregnant with my first child at age 42 the whooshing increased.  I thought it was just the increased cardiac demand that the increased weight had on me.  And by the way, I gained too much weight and did so very fast.  I was retaining fluid; everyone around me, including doctors, told me I should be swollen and bloated - little did I know that I was more bloated than I should be.  I finally developed pregnancy-induced hypertension with fear of developing pre-eclampsia.  I was sent immediately from the OB/GYN to the ER thinking I'd have to deliver prematurely, but luckily I was put on hospital bed rest until the baby was big enough to come out safely.  My blood pressure was dangerously high but maintained below 150/90 with no medicine.  I ended up losing 20 pounds of fluid in those last few weeks. The whooshing persisted - even louder than before - but was the last thing on my mind - I had long since stopped telling doctors about it.
When I delivered I thought my blood pressure would resume to normal but it did not.  I was determined to figure it out and had researched in PubMed about hemangiomas which I had developed on my finger.  I learned about a case in which the woman had hemangiomas during pregnancy on her hand and her kidney causing hypertension. I requested a scan of my kidneys and the dopplers detected stenosis in one or more vessels.  My primary doctor said it could be due to fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD).  I instantly read up on the condition and sought support through a patient group called FMDSA.  When I got the diagnosis it was determined to be in my kidneys and in my internal carotid arteries.  My FMD specialist, Dr. Jeffrey Olin, said the tortuosity in the internal carotids as it passed by my ears was causing the whooshing. He could hear it through his stethoscope. And the increased velocity of blood flow through the twists in the vessels caused the sound (bruit).
I had an angioplasty of my renal arteries, and since then I have been treated by an angiotensin II receptor blocker medicine for my renovascular hypertension.  My blood pressure is now well below 120/70 all the time, and I no longer get the whooshing.  I am not sure if that is due to the lower blood pressure or the fact that the medicine relaxes smooth muscle found in arteries. But I only get the whooshing now on a rare occasion if I turn my head far extreme to the side and hold it.
I guess my advice for patients who hear the whooshing is: get your doctor to listen with the stethoscope for the bruit, see a vascular medicine specialist and consider getting a doppler all the way up along the carotids to where they divide to form the internal carotids, and check your blood pressure during the day in various conditions or positions.  Second and third opinions never hurt either


"Medical Mystery: Giving Birth Didn't Ease a Woman's Dangerous Hypertenstion," Sandra G. Boodman, The Washington Post, October 17, 2011.

"The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2009. (Article)

"The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2009. (Video)

Fibromuscular Dysplasia Society of America

FMD is just one of many possible underlying causes of pulsatile tinnitus.  See this and other Cured Whoosher stories on our Cured Whooshers page.  

Sun, December 4, 2011 | link          Comments

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus, Dr. Maksim Shapiro, NYU Neurointerventional Radiology Section, NYU Langone Medical Center - neuroangio.org

Radiation Dose Chart - American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Resources Page: Click here for an interactive dose chart for various medical diagnostic tests. A downloadable and printable version is also available on this page. Discuss with your doctors.

Find a Neurotologist: American Neurotological Society (ANS) Membership Roster

Find a Neurointervention Specialist: Society of Neurointerventional Surgery (SNIS)- Click on "Doctor Finder"

Find a Neuro-Ophthalmologist: The North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Site: Neuroangio.org - Your neurovascular education and information resource. Patient Information.

UCSF Pulsatile Tinnitus Clinic

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Differential Diagnosis and Radiological Work-Up," Sjoert A. H. Pegge, Stefan C. A. Steens, Henricus P. M. Kunst, and Frederick J. A. Meijer, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (SEE TABLE 1).

Presentation: "Algorithm for Evaluation of Rhythmic Tinnitus," Douglas E Mattox, MD, Patricia Hudgins, MD, Jahrsdoerfer Lecture, University of Virginia, March 25, 2010. (This link is to the abstract/summary)

Presentation: "Imaging of the Patient with Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Dec 2013. (NEW! Mentions Pulsatile Tinnitus and Whooshers.com. Republished with Permission.)

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus: Diagnostic Pearls and Potential Pitfalls," B. S. Purohit, R. Hermans, K. Op de beeck; 1SINGAPORE/SG, 2Leuven/BE, European Society of Radiology, 2014.

Article: "Imaging In Pulsatile Tinnitus : When Should It Ring A Bell?" G. Bathla1, V. Chong; 1singapore/SG, 2Singapore/SG, European Society of Radiology, 2012."

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Contemporary Assessment and Management," Aristides Sismanis, Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery: October 2011 - Volume 19 - Issue 5 - p 348357 doi: 10.1097/MOO.0b013e3283493fd8, Otology and neuro-otology: Edited by Myles L. Pensak.

NEW Article: "Emergence of Venous Stenosis as the Dominant Cause of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Eytan RazErez NossekDaniel Jethanamest, Vinayak Narayan, Aryan Ali, Vera Sharashidze, Tibor Becske, Peter K. Nelson, Maksim Shapiro, Originally published8 May 2022 https://doi.org/10.1161/SVIN.121.000154, American Heart Association Journal - Stroke: Vascular and Interventional Neurology. 2022;0:e000154

Article: "Temporal Bone: Vascular Tinnitus," William W.M. Lo and M. Marcel Maya, Vascular, pp.1361-1374, 2003.

Article: "Diagnostic Clues in Pulsatile Tinnitus (Somatosounds)," Carlos Herraiza and José Miguel Aparicioa, Unidad de Acúfenos; Instituto ORL Antolí-Candela, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Otorrinolaringología, Fundación Hospital Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain; Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Quirón, Madrid, Spain, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2007;58(9):426-33. This is a link to the article abstract.

Article: "How I Struggled with (PULSATILE) Tinnitus," The Story of Actor Graham Cole, Daily Mail Online, January 10, 2007.

Article: "I Got Lifesaving OP for Whooshing Thanks to US Help," David Powell, Daily Post UK, DPW West, Feb 19, 2013.

Article: "Vital Signs: An Unwelcome Ringing," by Dr. Christopher Linstrom, Discover Magazine, April 2010. (About a cured patient with pulsatile tinnitus symptoms!)

Article: "Tinnitus Highlights Poor Doctor Patient Communication," Martin Young, MBChB, FCS(SA), Diagnosis and Treatment, KevinMd.Com, November 2010.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Recent Advances in Diagnosis," Aristides Sismanis MD, Wendy R. K. Smoker, MD, The Laryngoscope, Volume 104, Issue 6, pages 681-688, June 1994. ABSTRACT (Summary)

Article: "Neuroradiologic Assessment of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL: Dr Kircher and Dr Leonetti; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI: Dr Standring; Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Chicago, IL. Sept. 22-24, 2008. (CLICKING THIS LINK WILL DOWNLOAD THE PDF FILE)

Article: "Imaging of Tinnitus: A Review," Jane L. Weissman, MD and Barry E. Hirsch, MD, Radiology, August 2000.

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus," G. Madania and S.E.J. Connor, Clinical Radiology, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 319-328 (March 2009).

Article: "Imaging of the Patient With Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, December 31, 2013. (NEW! Mentions Whooshers.com and PULSATILE tinnitus as well.)

Article: "Imaging of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 74 Patients," Guner Sonmez, C Cinar Basekim, Ersin Ozturk, Atilla Gungor, Esref Kizilkaya, Clinical Imaging, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 102-108 (March 2007). (This is an abstract/summary-you have to pay to see the article in its entirety)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 84 Patients," Daniel Waldvogel, Heinrich P. Mattle, Matthias Sturzenegger and Gerhard Schroth, Journal of Neurology, Volume 245, Number 3, 137-142, DOI: 10.1007/s004150050193, November 12, 1997.

Article: "Role of Angiography in the Evaluation of Patients With Pulsatile Tinnitus," Edward J. Shin, MD; Anil K. Lalwani, MD; Christopher F. Dowd, MD, Laryngoscope 110: November 2000. (PDF FILE)

Article: "Angioplasty and Stenting for Intractable Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by Dural Venous Sinus Stenosis: A Case Series Report," Li Baomin, Shi Yongbing, and Cao Xiangyu, Dept of Neurosurgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Otol Neurotol. 35.366-370. Dec 2014.

Article: "CT Angiography as a Screening Tool for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: Feasibility and Test Characteristics," J. Narvid, H.M. Do, N.H. Blevins and N.J. Fishbein, American Journal of Neuroradiology 32:446-453, March 2011.

Article: "Brain Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (BDAVF)," Patient Information, www.NeuroAngio.org

Article: "Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: A Technical Case Report," Sato, Kenichi MD, PhD; Matsumoto, Yasushi MD; Kondo, Ryushi MD, PhD; Tominaga, Teiji MD, PhD, Neurosurgery: August 2010 - Volume 67 - Issue 2 - p 467470.

Article (Abstract): "A Convenient Sonographic Technique for Diagnosis of Pulsatile Tinnitus Induced by a High Jugular Bulb," The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Minoru Nakagawa, MD, Norimitsu Miyachi, MLT and Kenjiro Fujiwara, MD, Department of Neurosurgery (M.N., K.F.) and Clinical Laboratory (N.M.), Kosei General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan, J Ultrasound Med 27:139-140 0278-4297, 2008.

Article: "Surgical Treatment of the High Jugular Bulb in Patients with Ménières Disease and Pulsatile Tinnitus," V. Couloigner, A. Bozorg Grayeli, D. Bouccara, N. Julien and O. Sterkers, European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Volume 256, Number 5, 224-229, DOI: 10.1007/s004050050146 (ABSTRACT)

Article: "Brain AVM," (arteriovenous malformation), MayoClinic.com

Article: "Chiari Malformation," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Ménière's Disease," National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)

Article: "TMJ Disorders," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Anemia," American Society of Hematology, Hemotology.org

Article: "Pseudotumor Cerebri," (also called Benign Intracranial Hypertension) MayoClinic.com

Article: "Pulse-Synchronous Tinnitus," The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

Article: "Coarctation of the Aorta," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Man Cured of Hearing His Eyeballs Move," www.bbc.co.uk, July 27, 2011. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS)

Article: "Diagnosis and Cure of Venous Hum Tinnitus," Laryngoscope, Chandler JR, 93(7):892-5, July 1983.

Article: (Abstract) "Sinus Wall Reconstruction for Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence: A Standardized Surgical Procedure for a Range of Radiographic Findings," Dr. DJ Eisenman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Otology Neurotology, 32(7):1116-9; September 2011.

Article: (Abstract) "Awake Embolization of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum Causing Pulsatile Tinnitus: Simultaneous Confirmative Diagnosis and Treatment," Park YH, Kwon HJ, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Sep;17(3):376-9. Epub 2011 Oct 17. (NEW!)

Article: "A New Therapeutic Procedure for Treatment of Objective Venous Pulsatile Tinnitus," Sanchez TG, Murao M, Medeiros HRT, Kii M, Bento RF, Caldas JG, et al. Int Tinnitus J. 2002;8(1):54-57.

Article: "Glomus Tympanicum," The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 362:e66, Number 22, June 3, 2010.

Article: "Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus Following an Upper Mediastinal Lymph Node Resection," Wang YZ, Boudreaux JP, Campeau RJ, Woltering EA, South Med J. 2010 Apr;103(4):374-7.

Article: (Abstract) "Dissection of the Internal Carotid Artery After SCUBA-Diving: A Case Report and Review of the Literature," Franz Hafner, MD,* Thomas Gary, MD,* Froehlich Harald, MD,* Ernst Pilger,* Reinhard Groell, PD,w and Marianne, Brodmann* "Neurologist. 17(2):79-82, March 2011. (NEW!)

Article: "Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula," Bobby S. Korn, M.D., Ph.D., and Kang Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2011; 364:e15, February, 24, 2011. (WARNING: GRAPHIC IMAGES)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus Cured by Mastoidectomy," Duvillard C, Ballester M, Redon E, Romanet P., Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hôpital Général, Dijon, France, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, September 2004.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Symptom of Chronic Subclavian Artery Occlusion," Marcio Francisco Lehmann, Charbel Mounayer, Goetz Benndorf, Michel Piotin, and Jacques Moret, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:19601963, September 2005 (PDF).

Article: "Carotid Endarterectomy Relieves Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with Severe Ipsilateral Carotid Stenosis," J Kirkby-Bott, H.H Gibbs, European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 651-653, June 2004.

Article: "MR Angiography Imaging of Absence Vertebral Artery Causing of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Case Report," *Mehmet Cudi Tuncer; **Yekta Helbest Akgül & *Özlen Karabulut,* Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbak¹r, Turkey.** Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Özel Diyarbakr Hospital, 21100, Diyarbakr, Turkey, International Journal of Morphology, v.28 n.2 Temuco Jun. 2010."

Article: "Endovascular Treatment of Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm Presenting as Devastating Pulsatile Tinnitus. A Case Report and Review of Literature." Mehanna R, Shaltoni H. Morsi H, Mawad M., Interv Neuroradiol. 2010 Dec;16(4):451-4. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

"Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by an Aneurysm of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus: A New Case Report and Review of Literature," Lenck S, Mosimann PJ, Labeyrie MA, Houdart E., Department of Neuroradiology, hôpital Lariboisière, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France, J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct;39(4):276-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Sep 29. (NEW!)

Article: "Intractable Tinnitus and Sensorineural Deafness Cured by Surgical Correction of Coarctation of Aorta," S. Rathinam, A.M. Pettigrew, J.C.S. Pollack, Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 3:431-433 (2004).

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus," Don McFerran FRCS Consultant Otolaryngologist Essex County Hospital, Colchester, British Tinnitus Association, October 2007.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus and Dural Arteriovenous Malformation (Dural AVM)," G. A. J. Morrison, The Journal of Laryngology & Otology (1989), 103:1073-1075 Cambridge University Press (ABSTRACT).

Article: "Medical Mystery: Giving Birth Didn't Ease a Woman's Dangerous Hypertenstion," Sandra G. Boodman, The Washington Post, October 17, 2011.

Article: "That Noise Wasn't Just Tinnitus," Sandra G. Boodman, Special to The Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Article: "What's That Noise In Her?" H. Lee Kagan, Discovery Magazine, January 2006. (About a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and her doctor whose patience and persistence paid off).

Article: "The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2009

Article: "Diseases and Conditions/ Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)," Cleveland Clinic. Lists symptoms, details, treatments, and resources including Whooshers.com.

Article: Unraveling Pulsatile Tinnitus in FMD: A Report of the United States Registry For Fibromuscular Dysplasia."

Video: "A Rare Disease That May Be Underdiagnosed," Thomas M. Burton, June 26, 2009 (Hear an example of a whooshing sound in this short video)

Whooshers.com Pulsatile Tinnitus Sounds (Real Ones Recorded by Real Whooshers!)

Audio: Having trouble describing the sound you hear to others? Listen to this collection of sounds that whoosh and see if you can find a match to yours! Demonstrations: Heart Sounds & Murmurs, from the University of Washington Department of Medicine

Whooshers.com Review: SleepPhones- Soft, comfortable headphones to help mask the whoosh for a good night's sleep.

Replace "ringing" with "whooshing," and here it is: our theme song.