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Whoosh [hwoosh, hwoosh, woosh, woosh] noun 1. a loud, rushing noise, as of air or water: a great whoosh as the door opened. verb (used without object) 2. to move swiftly with a gushing or hissing noise: gusts of wind whooshing through the trees. verb (used with object) 3. to move (an object, a person, etc.) with a whooshing motion or sound: The storm whooshed the waves over the road. Also, woosh. Origin: 1840-1850; imit.

Pulsatile tinnitus is not tinnitus.
Pulsatile tinnitus is a rhythmical noise that is synchronous with the patient's heartbeat.

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Another Cured Whoosher: Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula

A while back I heard from a woman who I will call "Vickie."  Vickie wrote to let me know she had just had surgery to address the underlying cause of her whoosh: Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula (CCF).  Another Cured Whoosher!

There are a lot of medical report abstracts online about this cause; it is one of the more serious ones.  The UPMC Department of Neurological Surgery describes the condition and treatment options quite nicely on their web site. 

There were a few things that struck me about Vickie's story.  First of all, she detailed to me (and agreed to share with you) her medical history.  It's complicated.  Just a few months prior to her pulsatile tinnitus diagnosis, Vickie was diagnosed with a brain tumor.  Her whooshing began just one week *after* surgery for the brain tumor. Can you imagine? 

The second thing that struck me was that the specialist who recognized her pulsatile tinnitus (aka "whooshing") as a serious and distinct symptom was a neuro-ophthalmologist.  She had been having trouble with her eyes when she experienced the brain tumor, and she connected with a neuro-ophthalmologist.  So, when the whooshing started and she didn't know where to turn, she confided in him a second time, with the new symptom, and even though she wasn't feeling any issues with her eyes, it turned out he had a hunch what to do. That led her on the path to a proper diagnosis. 

To me, Vickie's story is the epitome of endurance.  To be diagnosed with a brain tumor, undergo surgery and start whooshing so soon in the recovery phase -and then- to be diagnosed with a second serious major health issue and have to address that? Well I'm exhausted just typing this.  I can't imagine what it must have been like.  But it proves the human ability to cope and endure and just keep moving forward.  That is hope.  

We patients are often confused about which specialists to turn to.  I've heard from a growing number of cured whooshers and I'm still convinced there isn't a go-to specialty.  Vickie went back to a doctor she trusted and who listened to her, rather than stay content with another who did not give her symptom the proper attention. And she found answers that way.  Bravo!

Vickie, I hope now, after the second major medical trauma in such a short period of time, you are able to relax and enjoy the silence and good health. Thank you so much for sharing your story.  

In September 2011 my doctor advised me to go to the emergency room to have a CT scan. My symptoms were a headache with incredible pressure pushing down into my left eye and double vision. I have had migraines all my life and I knew this was different. The doctor in the emergency room told me I had a migraine. I told him it was not a migraine and that my doctor wanted me to have a CT scan.

Hours later the emergency room doctor told me I had a brain tumor. I had to stay in the hospital to have an MRI which confirmed my condition. The double vision was not addressed at this time. I saw a neurosurgeon the next morning who was rather flippant. I did not choose him to do my surgery. I went for consultations with two other neurosurgeons at well known hospitals. My husband would only settle for a good neurosurgeon. We chose the third neurosurgeon who said the double vision was a separate issue. He advised me to see a neuro-ophthalmologist. I booked my surgery for the craniotomy to remove the brain tumor which took place in October 2011.

In the meantime I found a good neuro-ophthalmologist. He told me I had a 4th nerve palsy in my left eye which usually repairs itself within four months. I had a lot of faith in this doctor. There was no damage to my optic nerve which was good news. I still had double vision. This was managed by putting prisms inside my prescription sunglasses. Over the next four months the prescription had to be changed several times. I could drive; the prisms brought my vision together. Twice my vision tried to go back to normal. The first time for two days and the second time for two weeks. I started to have hope.  I still had the prisms and continued to see the neuro-ophthalmologist.

In January 2012 the double vision suddenly went away. I felt so grateful.

But then, one week later, I could hear a loud heartbeat in my left ear. It never stopped; I could not sleep and did not know which doctor to talk to about this. It went on for two months and I could not bear it.

I had an appointment with my neuro-ophthalmologist and mentioned this symptom. He told me I was in the right place now! He ordered an MRA.

When the results came back I was diagnosed with Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula. The neuro-ophthalmologist referred me to a neurosurgeon at a major hospital. The condition was explained to me. He said it was high pressure blood flowing from the artery going into the low pressure vein system. He was going to insert coils through the carotid artery into the cavernous sinus to block the pathway. I decided to have that surgery in March 2012.

It was only five months since I had major surgery for a brain tumor.

The surgery lasted four hours. When I woke up I no longer heard the noise in my ear. This was another grateful moment in my life. I have to go for a cerebral angiogram to follow up in two months. The surgeon said it could leak again and if I have blurred vision to call immediately.

Today I have my health back. I hope my story can help lots of other people.

Read more Cured Whooshers stories on the Cured Whooshers page!
Tue, February 19, 2013 | link          Comments

Another Cured Whoosher: Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

I received an email from another Cured Whoosher.  I will call him "Joe."  His story is similar to many others... the whooshing, heartbeat sound began, doctors brushed it off and prescribed nose spray, and then the patient had a choice: wait and wait to see if the symptom goes away or (the more trying and often more expensive) go with the instinct that something is wrong and find more opinions sooner rather than later.  

Like many of us, this patient listened to his instinct.  And it's a good thing he did, because the cause of his whoosh turned out to be one of the more serious, life-threatening ones if not identified and treated in time: arteriovenous malformation (AVM).

According to Mayo Clinic, an AVM is "an abnormal tangle of arteries and veins in your brain."

This patient could have died had he "waited" for the sound to go away.  In fact, as many doctors who know and understand our symptom have written, the symptom of pulsatile tinnitus very rarely goes away on its own. 

For more information on AVM's, see the Mayo Clinic site here.  

Another great resource on brain AVMs, and one written in lay terms for patients, can be found on neuroangio.org.

There is also a wonderful informative and supportive site for patients at the AVM Survivor's Network.  

AVMs are just one of many, many possible causes of pulsatile tinnitus.  And it's important to remember that most underlying causes are not as dangerous as this one.  But some of them are, so it's important to have them ruled out.  

Below is Joe's story.  Joe, thanks so much for sharing it!  Here's to a speedy recovery from your procedure and a lifetime of silence ahead! We'll be adding your story to the growing list of Cured Whoosher stories, medical reports and personal accounts of just some of the many, many possible causes, on the Cured Whooshers page.  More and more are added regulary, so check back soon. 

Here is the lastest Cured Whoosher:

I woke up on November 12th, 2012 with this heartbeat in my left ear.  I didn't know what was going on so I waited a few days and made an appointment with my primary doctor and was told I had a problem with my ear drum.  The doctor gave me medication and said everything would be fine in a couple of days.
In a couple of days I still had the problem, so I called for an appointment with an ENT and waited a week and saw him. The ENT gave me a hearing test, cleaned my ears, told me to check my blood pressure for a couple of weeks, gave me a nose spray, and said to come back in three weeks.
I waited three weeks and the problem was still there, so I decided to make an appointment with a neurologist. It took a few weeks to see the neurologist, but upon examination the doctor found something was wrong and ordered a sonogram.  That's when they saw there was a problem.
I then took a CT scan with [contrast] dye and was on my way to see a neurosurgeon a few weeks later. I was told I need to have angiogram/embolization.  I had that done on February 5th, 2013. 
When I woke up in recovery the heartbeat sound was GONE. It's been eight days since my surgery. I have a little numbness over my left forehead and nose and lip area. I was told this will go away. I was told I had ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION {AVM}.
I was told by my doctor this would have killed me if not treated in time. I would have hemorrhaged to death.
I would like to tell everyone out there: Don't give up.
I want to thank you for your site because if I had not found it I might not have continued to try and find what my whooshing was.  You literally saved my life.  Thank you very much.
Sun, February 17, 2013 | link          Comments

Poll Results: Did your Whooshing Begin After You Either Gained or Lost a Significant Amount of Weight?

Yes, my whooshing started after I gained significant weight.  50 Votes  16.78%

Yes, my whooshing started after I lost significant weight.  28 Votes   9.4%

No, when my whooshing started I had neither lost nor gained significant weight.  191 Votes  64.09%

Other:  29 Votes  9.73%

Total Votes: 298

Thanks for voting!  Please participate in the latest Whooshers.com poll and review previous poll results on our Polls page!

Sun, February 10, 2013 | link          Comments

Another Cured Whoosher's Story - Brain Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (BDAVF)

I've heard from a number of Cured Whooshers in the last two months. It's great to see and hear about pulsatile tinnitus patients getting the help they need.  I have a number of stories to share (with patients' permission, of course) and will in coming months.  

This one, written by a member of our very active Facebook group (I'll call her "Cindy"), is more about attitude than anything else.  First, I would like to repeat that Whooshers.com does not support or encourage self-diagnosis by patients - in fact we specifically discourage it.  This story, the way I read it, is not intended to condone self-diagnosis ... we need our doctors.  But what we do strongly believe, and what I think this story is really about (while it may be interpreted by some as self-diagnosis), is how to be your best advocate.  Listen to your instincts and convey them to doctors who will listen. And reach out for the support you need - whether it's family, friends, or an online support group - in the meantime.   

I have not posted in this group before, basically because I was always in pain and had no energy and I was busy doing research! But I would like to share my story.

I had a migraine for 5 months that never let up. I went to the doctor repeatedly trying to get help. They told me it was anxiety and set up appointments for me in psychology departments.

Then about 12 weeks ago, I developed a beeping, wheezing, whooshing, humming, quacking sound in my ear. It was always there and I could not get away from it. It was so loud, I asked my husband if he could hear it by putting his ear up to mine, and sure enough, he could.

I sent my doctor an email stating of this new symptom. She still told me it was anxiety. I even went into urgent care one day because I had also developed severe pain in my ear and whole left side on my head. That doctor told me I have TMJ and gave me a script for Oxicodone. I was so frustrated and every time I went to the doctor, I left crying. They were trying to diagnose me as bipolar. Of course I was depressed and had anxiety... something was going on inside of my head and I was in constant pain. Although, shortly after the noise in my ear started, my headaches actually eased up some and I had more pressure than pain.

So, with all of my frustration, I started doing my own research. I was not going to let this rest and just accept the dumb diagnosis they were giving me. My body was literally screaming at me!! I came across Whooshers.com, which fueled me to not give up. Upon hours of studying different causes for my symptoms, I came up with a cause, brain dural arteriovenous fistula (BDAVF), on a website called Neuroangio.org.

I sent my doctor an email and insisted I have an MRI and MRA. I also stated that I was at the end of my rope, and how incredibly disappointed I was in the care I was receiving. And I was at [a major medical institution]....I know, its shocking!!! Anyhow, I had the MRI and MRA, and guess what? I was diagnosed with a brain dural arteriovenous fistula. The neuro doctor told me the fistula was caused by a blood clot. Wow! So that's why I had that migraine for 5 months. If they would have diagnosed the blood clot one of the several times I went in, I would have never even gotten the fistula. Plus I'm VERY lucky that I did not have a massive stroke!

But it is what it is now and I just had the fistula fixed one week ago. I am feeling amazing. I feel like I have been reborn. No more sound, no more headache, no more anxiety, and I have been sleeping like a baby! Bottom line: Go with your gut and do NOT give up. Many doctors don't even know that there are two types of tinnitus. See a specialist - family doctors generally don't know about pulsatile tinnitus. My doctor even admitted that she has never heard of pulsatile tinnitus and has never had a patient that has had this in her 30+ years of practice!

I hope this post will help someone, somewhere!!


This story will be added to our Cured Whooshers page, where we list links to medical reports and personal stories of recovery from the whoosh.  For more information on brain dural arteriovenous fistulas, see Neuroangio.org.

We are patients, not doctors. However, our stories can be shared and learned from.  There is a lot of misinformation online.  But just because information is online doesn't always mean it's bad.  In some cases, it could be the opposite.  More and more medical journals post reports and abstracts to the reports online - many of which we link to on the Cured Whooshers page - and there are reputable professionals and institutions that provide good online information.  Patients: let the doctors guide us.  But doctors: listen to us when we convey our instincts.  Pulsatile tinnitus is a rare symptom.  We can, truly, learn from each other.  

Sun, February 10, 2013 | link          Comments

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus, Dr. Maksim Shapiro, NYU Neurointerventional Radiology Section, NYU Langone Medical Center - neuroangio.org

Radiation Dose Chart - American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Resources Page: Click here for an interactive dose chart for various medical diagnostic tests. A downloadable and printable version is also available on this page. Discuss with your doctors.

Find a Neurotologist: American Neurotological Society (ANS) Membership Roster

Find a Neurointervention Specialist: Society of Neurointerventional Surgery (SNIS)- Click on "Doctor Finder"

Find a Neuro-Ophthalmologist: The North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Site: Neuroangio.org - Your neurovascular education and information resource. Patient Information.

UCSF Pulsatile Tinnitus Clinic

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Differential Diagnosis and Radiological Work-Up," Sjoert A. H. Pegge, Stefan C. A. Steens, Henricus P. M. Kunst, and Frederick J. A. Meijer, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (SEE TABLE 1).

Presentation: "Algorithm for Evaluation of Rhythmic Tinnitus," Douglas E Mattox, MD, Patricia Hudgins, MD, Jahrsdoerfer Lecture, University of Virginia, March 25, 2010. (This link is to the abstract/summary)

Presentation: "Imaging of the Patient with Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Dec 2013. (NEW! Mentions Pulsatile Tinnitus and Whooshers.com. Republished with Permission.)

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus: Diagnostic Pearls and Potential Pitfalls," B. S. Purohit, R. Hermans, K. Op de beeck; 1SINGAPORE/SG, 2Leuven/BE, European Society of Radiology, 2014.

Article: "Imaging In Pulsatile Tinnitus : When Should It Ring A Bell?" G. Bathla1, V. Chong; 1singapore/SG, 2Singapore/SG, European Society of Radiology, 2012."

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Contemporary Assessment and Management," Aristides Sismanis, Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery: October 2011 - Volume 19 - Issue 5 - p 348357 doi: 10.1097/MOO.0b013e3283493fd8, Otology and neuro-otology: Edited by Myles L. Pensak.

NEW Article: "Emergence of Venous Stenosis as the Dominant Cause of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Eytan RazErez NossekDaniel Jethanamest, Vinayak Narayan, Aryan Ali, Vera Sharashidze, Tibor Becske, Peter K. Nelson, Maksim Shapiro, Originally published8 May 2022 https://doi.org/10.1161/SVIN.121.000154, American Heart Association Journal - Stroke: Vascular and Interventional Neurology. 2022;0:e000154

Article: "Temporal Bone: Vascular Tinnitus," William W.M. Lo and M. Marcel Maya, Vascular, pp.1361-1374, 2003.

Article: "Diagnostic Clues in Pulsatile Tinnitus (Somatosounds)," Carlos Herraiza and José Miguel Aparicioa, Unidad de Acúfenos; Instituto ORL Antolí-Candela, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Otorrinolaringología, Fundación Hospital Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain; Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Quirón, Madrid, Spain, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2007;58(9):426-33. This is a link to the article abstract.

Article: "How I Struggled with (PULSATILE) Tinnitus," The Story of Actor Graham Cole, Daily Mail Online, January 10, 2007.

Article: "I Got Lifesaving OP for Whooshing Thanks to US Help," David Powell, Daily Post UK, DPW West, Feb 19, 2013.

Article: "Vital Signs: An Unwelcome Ringing," by Dr. Christopher Linstrom, Discover Magazine, April 2010. (About a cured patient with pulsatile tinnitus symptoms!)

Article: "Tinnitus Highlights Poor Doctor Patient Communication," Martin Young, MBChB, FCS(SA), Diagnosis and Treatment, KevinMd.Com, November 2010.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Recent Advances in Diagnosis," Aristides Sismanis MD, Wendy R. K. Smoker, MD, The Laryngoscope, Volume 104, Issue 6, pages 681-688, June 1994. ABSTRACT (Summary)

Article: "Neuroradiologic Assessment of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL: Dr Kircher and Dr Leonetti; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI: Dr Standring; Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Chicago, IL. Sept. 22-24, 2008. (CLICKING THIS LINK WILL DOWNLOAD THE PDF FILE)

Article: "Imaging of Tinnitus: A Review," Jane L. Weissman, MD and Barry E. Hirsch, MD, Radiology, August 2000.

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus," G. Madania and S.E.J. Connor, Clinical Radiology, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 319-328 (March 2009).

Article: "Imaging of the Patient With Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, December 31, 2013. (NEW! Mentions Whooshers.com and PULSATILE tinnitus as well.)

Article: "Imaging of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 74 Patients," Guner Sonmez, C Cinar Basekim, Ersin Ozturk, Atilla Gungor, Esref Kizilkaya, Clinical Imaging, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 102-108 (March 2007). (This is an abstract/summary-you have to pay to see the article in its entirety)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 84 Patients," Daniel Waldvogel, Heinrich P. Mattle, Matthias Sturzenegger and Gerhard Schroth, Journal of Neurology, Volume 245, Number 3, 137-142, DOI: 10.1007/s004150050193, November 12, 1997.

Article: "Role of Angiography in the Evaluation of Patients With Pulsatile Tinnitus," Edward J. Shin, MD; Anil K. Lalwani, MD; Christopher F. Dowd, MD, Laryngoscope 110: November 2000. (PDF FILE)

Article: "Angioplasty and Stenting for Intractable Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by Dural Venous Sinus Stenosis: A Case Series Report," Li Baomin, Shi Yongbing, and Cao Xiangyu, Dept of Neurosurgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Otol Neurotol. 35.366-370. Dec 2014.

Article: "CT Angiography as a Screening Tool for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: Feasibility and Test Characteristics," J. Narvid, H.M. Do, N.H. Blevins and N.J. Fishbein, American Journal of Neuroradiology 32:446-453, March 2011.

Article: "Brain Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (BDAVF)," Patient Information, www.NeuroAngio.org

Article: "Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: A Technical Case Report," Sato, Kenichi MD, PhD; Matsumoto, Yasushi MD; Kondo, Ryushi MD, PhD; Tominaga, Teiji MD, PhD, Neurosurgery: August 2010 - Volume 67 - Issue 2 - p 467470.

Article (Abstract): "A Convenient Sonographic Technique for Diagnosis of Pulsatile Tinnitus Induced by a High Jugular Bulb," The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Minoru Nakagawa, MD, Norimitsu Miyachi, MLT and Kenjiro Fujiwara, MD, Department of Neurosurgery (M.N., K.F.) and Clinical Laboratory (N.M.), Kosei General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan, J Ultrasound Med 27:139-140 0278-4297, 2008.

Article: "Surgical Treatment of the High Jugular Bulb in Patients with Ménières Disease and Pulsatile Tinnitus," V. Couloigner, A. Bozorg Grayeli, D. Bouccara, N. Julien and O. Sterkers, European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Volume 256, Number 5, 224-229, DOI: 10.1007/s004050050146 (ABSTRACT)

Article: "Brain AVM," (arteriovenous malformation), MayoClinic.com

Article: "Chiari Malformation," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Ménière's Disease," National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)

Article: "TMJ Disorders," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Anemia," American Society of Hematology, Hemotology.org

Article: "Pseudotumor Cerebri," (also called Benign Intracranial Hypertension) MayoClinic.com

Article: "Pulse-Synchronous Tinnitus," The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

Article: "Coarctation of the Aorta," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Man Cured of Hearing His Eyeballs Move," www.bbc.co.uk, July 27, 2011. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS)

Article: "Diagnosis and Cure of Venous Hum Tinnitus," Laryngoscope, Chandler JR, 93(7):892-5, July 1983.

Article: (Abstract) "Sinus Wall Reconstruction for Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence: A Standardized Surgical Procedure for a Range of Radiographic Findings," Dr. DJ Eisenman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Otology Neurotology, 32(7):1116-9; September 2011.

Article: (Abstract) "Awake Embolization of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum Causing Pulsatile Tinnitus: Simultaneous Confirmative Diagnosis and Treatment," Park YH, Kwon HJ, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Sep;17(3):376-9. Epub 2011 Oct 17. (NEW!)

Article: "A New Therapeutic Procedure for Treatment of Objective Venous Pulsatile Tinnitus," Sanchez TG, Murao M, Medeiros HRT, Kii M, Bento RF, Caldas JG, et al. Int Tinnitus J. 2002;8(1):54-57.

Article: "Glomus Tympanicum," The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 362:e66, Number 22, June 3, 2010.

Article: "Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus Following an Upper Mediastinal Lymph Node Resection," Wang YZ, Boudreaux JP, Campeau RJ, Woltering EA, South Med J. 2010 Apr;103(4):374-7.

Article: (Abstract) "Dissection of the Internal Carotid Artery After SCUBA-Diving: A Case Report and Review of the Literature," Franz Hafner, MD,* Thomas Gary, MD,* Froehlich Harald, MD,* Ernst Pilger,* Reinhard Groell, PD,w and Marianne, Brodmann* "Neurologist. 17(2):79-82, March 2011. (NEW!)

Article: "Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula," Bobby S. Korn, M.D., Ph.D., and Kang Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2011; 364:e15, February, 24, 2011. (WARNING: GRAPHIC IMAGES)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus Cured by Mastoidectomy," Duvillard C, Ballester M, Redon E, Romanet P., Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hôpital Général, Dijon, France, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, September 2004.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Symptom of Chronic Subclavian Artery Occlusion," Marcio Francisco Lehmann, Charbel Mounayer, Goetz Benndorf, Michel Piotin, and Jacques Moret, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:19601963, September 2005 (PDF).

Article: "Carotid Endarterectomy Relieves Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with Severe Ipsilateral Carotid Stenosis," J Kirkby-Bott, H.H Gibbs, European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 651-653, June 2004.

Article: "MR Angiography Imaging of Absence Vertebral Artery Causing of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Case Report," *Mehmet Cudi Tuncer; **Yekta Helbest Akgül & *Özlen Karabulut,* Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbak¹r, Turkey.** Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Özel Diyarbakr Hospital, 21100, Diyarbakr, Turkey, International Journal of Morphology, v.28 n.2 Temuco Jun. 2010."

Article: "Endovascular Treatment of Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm Presenting as Devastating Pulsatile Tinnitus. A Case Report and Review of Literature." Mehanna R, Shaltoni H. Morsi H, Mawad M., Interv Neuroradiol. 2010 Dec;16(4):451-4. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

"Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by an Aneurysm of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus: A New Case Report and Review of Literature," Lenck S, Mosimann PJ, Labeyrie MA, Houdart E., Department of Neuroradiology, hôpital Lariboisière, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France, J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct;39(4):276-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Sep 29. (NEW!)

Article: "Intractable Tinnitus and Sensorineural Deafness Cured by Surgical Correction of Coarctation of Aorta," S. Rathinam, A.M. Pettigrew, J.C.S. Pollack, Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 3:431-433 (2004).

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus," Don McFerran FRCS Consultant Otolaryngologist Essex County Hospital, Colchester, British Tinnitus Association, October 2007.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus and Dural Arteriovenous Malformation (Dural AVM)," G. A. J. Morrison, The Journal of Laryngology & Otology (1989), 103:1073-1075 Cambridge University Press (ABSTRACT).

Article: "Medical Mystery: Giving Birth Didn't Ease a Woman's Dangerous Hypertenstion," Sandra G. Boodman, The Washington Post, October 17, 2011.

Article: "That Noise Wasn't Just Tinnitus," Sandra G. Boodman, Special to The Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Article: "What's That Noise In Her?" H. Lee Kagan, Discovery Magazine, January 2006. (About a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and her doctor whose patience and persistence paid off).

Article: "The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2009

Article: "Diseases and Conditions/ Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)," Cleveland Clinic. Lists symptoms, details, treatments, and resources including Whooshers.com.

Article: Unraveling Pulsatile Tinnitus in FMD: A Report of the United States Registry For Fibromuscular Dysplasia."

Video: "A Rare Disease That May Be Underdiagnosed," Thomas M. Burton, June 26, 2009 (Hear an example of a whooshing sound in this short video)

Whooshers.com Pulsatile Tinnitus Sounds (Real Ones Recorded by Real Whooshers!)

Audio: Having trouble describing the sound you hear to others? Listen to this collection of sounds that whoosh and see if you can find a match to yours! Demonstrations: Heart Sounds & Murmurs, from the University of Washington Department of Medicine

Whooshers.com Review: SleepPhones- Soft, comfortable headphones to help mask the whoosh for a good night's sleep.

Replace "ringing" with "whooshing," and here it is: our theme song.