HOMEInformation for Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus - START HEREAbout This SiteUPDATED! Top Ten Tips For Doctors, Written By DoctorsPulsatile Tinnitus Diagnosis CodesWEBINARS & Events8/13/2023 WEBINAR VIDEO!Pulsatile Tinnitus SoundsCured WhooshersDonate Today!Whoosher WednesdaysNews & PressWhooshers T-ShirtsPoll ResultsMap Your WhooshArchives/Previous PostsContact Us

Whooshers.com is managed by The Pulsatile Tinnitus Foundation, Inc., a public charity registered under Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 501(c)(3).
Support our community and make a tax deductible donation HERE!

Whoosh [hwoosh, hwoosh, woosh, woosh] noun 1. a loud, rushing noise, as of air or water: a great whoosh as the door opened. verb (used without object) 2. to move swiftly with a gushing or hissing noise: gusts of wind whooshing through the trees. verb (used with object) 3. to move (an object, a person, etc.) with a whooshing motion or sound: The storm whooshed the waves over the road. Also, woosh. Origin: 1840-1850; imit.

Pulsatile tinnitus is not tinnitus.
Pulsatile tinnitus is a rhythmical noise that is synchronous with the patient's heartbeat.

Archive Newer | Older

War, Veterans, & Tinnitus

In the United States we commemorate Memorial Day on Monday, a day to honor our fallen military veterans.  It's also a good opportunity to show appreciation for all the men and women who join the military voluntarily to serve and protect us each and every day.

More and more, we're hearing (excuse the pun) about soldiers coming home from war zones with injuries of the brain and hearing problems.  All of us who experience some form of tinnitus know that, since tinnitus is not a visible disability, it is often difficult to be diagnosed and treated.  It's often difficult to explain the sounds we hear to others.  Many people suffer for years and years, thinking it's "normal," or they just try to deal with it because of the fear of ridicule.  

According to The American Tinnitus Association (ATA), tinnitus is the number one service connected disability of veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, mostly due to exposure to loud noise.  Recently, legislators and organizations like the ATA have stepped-up campaigns for more tinnitus awareness and research, especially within the military community.

Tinnitus is real.  One Veteran describes his experience and life with tinnitus in this video.

Veterans suffering from tinnitus (and even family members of veterans who happen to suffer from tinnitus) may qualify for benefits and/or participation in current research studies. 

Whooshers.com is a community specifically geared to sufferers of pulsatile tinnitus -- most service-related cases of tinnitus will turn out to be regular, non-pulsatile tinnitus.  Diagnosis and treatment for the two distinctive forms of tinnitus vary.  However, we still think that increased general awareness of tinnitus is a step in the right direction for ALL tinnitus sufferers. 

Whether you hear a whooshing, buzzing, ringing, beeping or other sound -- you're not alone.  Millions of people around the world suffer from tinnitus.  We can help each other cope, seek answers and find a cure. 

For more information on tinnitus support for veterans see the ATA links above and in the "Resources" area, or write whooshers@gmail.com

Thank you for your service!

Sat, May 29, 2010 | link          Comments

"Grey's Anatomy" Features Another Possible Cause of Pulsatile Tinnitus: Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCD)

A recent episode of Grey's Anatomy featured a young woman with tinnitus, vertigo and other symptoms, found to be caused by a very rare condition: Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCD).  It's not entirely clear in the episode whether she is suffering from the heartbeat-like, whooshing sound (or at least I didn't catch it, did any of you?), but it turns out that tinnitus of the pulsatile variety is a common symptom in cases of SCD.

In the episode, the patient's (annoying) parents are convinced that she is schizophrenic, as are many of the doctors.  She insists she's not crazy -- that the sounds are real.  No one believes her, EXCEPT for one doctor (hero!), who takes the time to do a little research and discovers SCD in a recent medical journal.  Initial tests do not show anything, but in one television hour, she is diagnosed (via a rather interesting eye examination), has surgery (of which kind is not clear) and she's cured. 

I love television! 

But seriously, SCD is a real condition that needs medical attention. And doctors have cured patients with SCD, just like they did on the show.    

According to doctors at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, SCD is caused by a thinning or complete absence of part of the temporal bone, and it is often accompanied by hyperacusis.  The condition is rare and was only written up in medical journals in 1998.  As with other pulsatile tinnitus causes, it can be very difficult to diagnose.  The patient in the show had all kinds of diagnostic tests that came back "unremarkable" before the tell-all eye exam that revealed the SCD.  

There is some fascinating information about the studies done on SCD patients at Johns Hopkins, including medical resources you can discuss with your doctors, here.

And if you think you may have SCD, see this page from Johns Hopkins for patients.

For the record, the episode of Grey's Anatomy is Season Six, Episode 22 titled, "Shiny Happy People."  

Wed, May 26, 2010 | link          Comments

Poll Results: Have You Ever Been Prescribed Medications for your Whoosh?

Yes:   35%

No:    65%

Total Votes: 17

Thanks for voting!  Please be sure to check out the latest Whooshers.com poll!

Sat, May 22, 2010 | link          Comments

Pulsatile Tinnitus & Essential Thrombocythemia (ET)

As we all know, pulsatile tinnitus is not a condition; it's a symptom of an underlying condition.  The trick is finding which condition is the cause of the whooshing.  Each case is different.  We've explored many posible causes here at Whooshers.com, but there are always more, and the goal is to post as many as possible so you can discuss them with your doctor(s).

Here's another one: Essential Thrombocythemia (ET).  The title of a new article in the American Journal of Otolaryngology, "Pulsatile tinnitus as a first symptom of essential thrombocythemia," says it all.  You must pay to read the article in its entirety, but you can still read the abstract for a summary.  The study stresses the importance of blood tests.    

For more information on essential thrombocythemia see the Mayo Clinic's information page here

Sun, May 16, 2010 | link          Comments

An Angiogram Answer -- A Story For Tinnitus Awareness Week 2010!

Exactly one year ago, I was recovering in a hospital after having a cerebral angiogram.  For three months, I had been experiencing the pulsing, whooshing, heartbeat sound of pulsatile tinnitus, but none of the many tests I'd had -- an MRI, 2 MRAs, CT scan, etc. -- revealed the cause of my whoosh.

But the angiogram DID.  The culprit?  A small vein behind my ear near my brain.  This wacky vein moved close enough to my ear that I can hear the blood flowing through it.  Scary!  But lucky for me, doctors maintain that it's not a life threatening condition.

In the days leading up to it, I was completely overwhelmed about the procedure.  Unlike the previous tests, the cerebral angiogram is considered "invasive."  I was nervous (that's putting it lightly-- I was FREAKED OUT) about how it would feel since I had to remain awake the entre time, and I was concerned about the risks.  The anxiety was exhausting.

The Internet is full of posts by people of all ages who have had a cerebral angiogram for a variety of health issues, and I'm pretty sure I read them ALL.  By the time I checked in at the hosptial, I was ready.  I decided that the risks involved in the procedure were outweighed by the risks associated with the potential causes of my pulsatile tinnitus.  I simply had to rule out the scary stuff.  At that point, I was so concerned and nervous about my pulsatile tinnitus, that I think I almost wanted my doctors to tell me I had a brain tumor so something definitive could be DONE about it.  Irrational as that may seem to people who have never experienced the whooshing, I was simply worn out from the constant head noise and the not-knowing.

It took a few hours.  When doctors finished the procedure they told me they had discovered the cause of my whoosh.  I wept like a baby -- not because I was in any pain (I wasn't at all) or because I was scared;  I was overwhelmed because FINALLY there was proof that I wasn't going crazy.  Pulsatile tinnitus IS REAL, and now doctors had the X-ray films to prove it.

But while the problem was isolated, I found out pretty quickly that it's sometimes a whole other ballgame to actually fix it.  One year later, I am still in discussions with doctors about what to do.  Apparently my whoosh cause is not that common among pulsatile tinnitus sufferers, so there is some debate about the effectiveness and safety of fixing it. 

My recovery time after the cererbal angiogram was very quick.  The decision to have the procedure is very personal to each individual, and the risks need to be discussed in detail with a doctor, but I was glad I did it. 

Meanwhile, I'm going on 15 months of whooshing.  I continue to carry around my X-ray films, CDs and medical records from specialist to specialist to learn more about my options. 

I hear from whooshers who have been whooshing even longer and have so far been unable to isolate the cause.  It's a tough stage to be in, but I say keep looking.  Even if you have to see many doctors, it's worth it in the end.  Know that there are many of us and that we're rooting for each other.  You're not alone.  Sometimes one answer will lead to another quickly, and other times --like in my case-- the process continues slowly.  But it's moving, and that's what counts, right?

Pulsatile tinnitus should NOT be treated like regular tinnitus.  Its possible causes are often unique from regular tinnitus and can quite posibbly be cured if properly identified.  In a way, we whooshers are lucky because there is no known cure for regular, non-pulsatile tinnitus. 

In the back of my mind, I have dictated a letter to all the doctors who dismissed my pulsatile tinnitus early on ...  the ones that told me nothing was "wrong" with me, that I was crazy and that I'd have to "live with it," without even doing a single test.  Sure, part of me is mad for the way they treated me, but mostly I hope that the next pulsatile tinnitus patient that walks into their offices is treated with respect and proper medical care.  One day, I will send those letters. 

In the meantime, we pulsatile tinnitus sufferers should continue sharing our stories with everyone in our lives, especially our doctors.  This week (May 16-22) is Tinnitus Awareness Week, a great opportunity to tell YOUR story.  Telling your story can lead you in directions you never thought were possible. 

The history behind Whooshers.com is proof of this.  Even when I have difficult days, I try to remember that sharing our stories is the first step toward recovery.  Finding doctors who understand pulsatile tinnitus, respect the possible causes, recognize the possible physical issues involved, and address the psychological challenges associated with it, will follow. 

And then the journey toward an answer can truly begin.

What's your pulsatile tinnitus story? Please share in the comments section below!


Sat, May 15, 2010 | link          Comments

Poll Results: Have You Tried a Supplement to Cure Your Whoosh?

100% No

0%    Yes

Total Votes: 13

Thanks for voting!  Please see the latest Whooshers.com poll and see the results page for past polls!

Sat, May 15, 2010 | link          Comments

Pregnancy and Whooshing

I've heard from several women who experienced pulsatile tinnitus during pregnancy.  A few of you posted comments to a previous Whooshers post about pulsatile tinnitus and pregnancy.

Recently, a pregnant whoosher wrote in with the question below.  If any of you have any advice for her and other pregnant whooshers, please leave a comment!

"I am 24 weeks pregnant and have been hearing the whooshing heartbeat sound since 12 weeks. Right now it is in my left ear only but sooo annoying... I'm curious to know if it usually goes away after delivery? I can't find much info on what happens after birth..."

Tue, May 4, 2010 | link          Comments

Archive Newer | Older



Promote Your Page Too

Follow Whooshers
         on Twitter


Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus, Dr. Maksim Shapiro, NYU Neurointerventional Radiology Section, NYU Langone Medical Center - neuroangio.org

Radiation Dose Chart - American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Resources Page: Click here for an interactive dose chart for various medical diagnostic tests. A downloadable and printable version is also available on this page. Discuss with your doctors.

Find a Neurotologist: American Neurotological Society (ANS) Membership Roster

Find a Neurointervention Specialist: Society of Neurointerventional Surgery (SNIS)- Click on "Doctor Finder"

Find a Neuro-Ophthalmologist: The North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Site: Neuroangio.org - Your neurovascular education and information resource. Patient Information.

UCSF Pulsatile Tinnitus Clinic

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Differential Diagnosis and Radiological Work-Up," Sjoert A. H. Pegge, Stefan C. A. Steens, Henricus P. M. Kunst, and Frederick J. A. Meijer, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (SEE TABLE 1).

Presentation: "Algorithm for Evaluation of Rhythmic Tinnitus," Douglas E Mattox, MD, Patricia Hudgins, MD, Jahrsdoerfer Lecture, University of Virginia, March 25, 2010. (This link is to the abstract/summary)

Presentation: "Imaging of the Patient with Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Dec 2013. (NEW! Mentions Pulsatile Tinnitus and Whooshers.com. Republished with Permission.)

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus: Diagnostic Pearls and Potential Pitfalls," B. S. Purohit, R. Hermans, K. Op de beeck; 1SINGAPORE/SG, 2Leuven/BE, European Society of Radiology, 2014.

Article: "Imaging In Pulsatile Tinnitus : When Should It Ring A Bell?" G. Bathla1, V. Chong; 1singapore/SG, 2Singapore/SG, European Society of Radiology, 2012."

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Contemporary Assessment and Management," Aristides Sismanis, Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery: October 2011 - Volume 19 - Issue 5 - p 348357 doi: 10.1097/MOO.0b013e3283493fd8, Otology and neuro-otology: Edited by Myles L. Pensak.

NEW Article: "Emergence of Venous Stenosis as the Dominant Cause of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Eytan RazErez NossekDaniel Jethanamest, Vinayak Narayan, Aryan Ali, Vera Sharashidze, Tibor Becske, Peter K. Nelson, Maksim Shapiro, Originally published8 May 2022 https://doi.org/10.1161/SVIN.121.000154, American Heart Association Journal - Stroke: Vascular and Interventional Neurology. 2022;0:e000154

Article: "Temporal Bone: Vascular Tinnitus," William W.M. Lo and M. Marcel Maya, Vascular, pp.1361-1374, 2003.

Article: "Diagnostic Clues in Pulsatile Tinnitus (Somatosounds)," Carlos Herraiza and José Miguel Aparicioa, Unidad de Acúfenos; Instituto ORL Antolí-Candela, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Otorrinolaringología, Fundación Hospital Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain; Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Quirón, Madrid, Spain, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2007;58(9):426-33. This is a link to the article abstract.

Article: "How I Struggled with (PULSATILE) Tinnitus," The Story of Actor Graham Cole, Daily Mail Online, January 10, 2007.

Article: "I Got Lifesaving OP for Whooshing Thanks to US Help," David Powell, Daily Post UK, DPW West, Feb 19, 2013.

Article: "Vital Signs: An Unwelcome Ringing," by Dr. Christopher Linstrom, Discover Magazine, April 2010. (About a cured patient with pulsatile tinnitus symptoms!)

Article: "Tinnitus Highlights Poor Doctor Patient Communication," Martin Young, MBChB, FCS(SA), Diagnosis and Treatment, KevinMd.Com, November 2010.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Recent Advances in Diagnosis," Aristides Sismanis MD, Wendy R. K. Smoker, MD, The Laryngoscope, Volume 104, Issue 6, pages 681-688, June 1994. ABSTRACT (Summary)

Article: "Neuroradiologic Assessment of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL: Dr Kircher and Dr Leonetti; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI: Dr Standring; Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Chicago, IL. Sept. 22-24, 2008. (CLICKING THIS LINK WILL DOWNLOAD THE PDF FILE)

Article: "Imaging of Tinnitus: A Review," Jane L. Weissman, MD and Barry E. Hirsch, MD, Radiology, August 2000.

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus," G. Madania and S.E.J. Connor, Clinical Radiology, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 319-328 (March 2009).

Article: "Imaging of the Patient With Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, December 31, 2013. (NEW! Mentions Whooshers.com and PULSATILE tinnitus as well.)

Article: "Imaging of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 74 Patients," Guner Sonmez, C Cinar Basekim, Ersin Ozturk, Atilla Gungor, Esref Kizilkaya, Clinical Imaging, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 102-108 (March 2007). (This is an abstract/summary-you have to pay to see the article in its entirety)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 84 Patients," Daniel Waldvogel, Heinrich P. Mattle, Matthias Sturzenegger and Gerhard Schroth, Journal of Neurology, Volume 245, Number 3, 137-142, DOI: 10.1007/s004150050193, November 12, 1997.

Article: "Role of Angiography in the Evaluation of Patients With Pulsatile Tinnitus," Edward J. Shin, MD; Anil K. Lalwani, MD; Christopher F. Dowd, MD, Laryngoscope 110: November 2000. (PDF FILE)

Article: "Angioplasty and Stenting for Intractable Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by Dural Venous Sinus Stenosis: A Case Series Report," Li Baomin, Shi Yongbing, and Cao Xiangyu, Dept of Neurosurgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Otol Neurotol. 35.366-370. Dec 2014.

Article: "CT Angiography as a Screening Tool for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: Feasibility and Test Characteristics," J. Narvid, H.M. Do, N.H. Blevins and N.J. Fishbein, American Journal of Neuroradiology 32:446-453, March 2011.

Article: "Brain Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (BDAVF)," Patient Information, www.NeuroAngio.org

Article: "Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: A Technical Case Report," Sato, Kenichi MD, PhD; Matsumoto, Yasushi MD; Kondo, Ryushi MD, PhD; Tominaga, Teiji MD, PhD, Neurosurgery: August 2010 - Volume 67 - Issue 2 - p 467470.

Article (Abstract): "A Convenient Sonographic Technique for Diagnosis of Pulsatile Tinnitus Induced by a High Jugular Bulb," The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Minoru Nakagawa, MD, Norimitsu Miyachi, MLT and Kenjiro Fujiwara, MD, Department of Neurosurgery (M.N., K.F.) and Clinical Laboratory (N.M.), Kosei General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan, J Ultrasound Med 27:139-140 0278-4297, 2008.

Article: "Surgical Treatment of the High Jugular Bulb in Patients with Ménières Disease and Pulsatile Tinnitus," V. Couloigner, A. Bozorg Grayeli, D. Bouccara, N. Julien and O. Sterkers, European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Volume 256, Number 5, 224-229, DOI: 10.1007/s004050050146 (ABSTRACT)

Article: "Brain AVM," (arteriovenous malformation), MayoClinic.com

Article: "Chiari Malformation," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Ménière's Disease," National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)

Article: "TMJ Disorders," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Anemia," American Society of Hematology, Hemotology.org

Article: "Pseudotumor Cerebri," (also called Benign Intracranial Hypertension) MayoClinic.com

Article: "Pulse-Synchronous Tinnitus," The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

Article: "Coarctation of the Aorta," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Man Cured of Hearing His Eyeballs Move," www.bbc.co.uk, July 27, 2011. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS)

Article: "Diagnosis and Cure of Venous Hum Tinnitus," Laryngoscope, Chandler JR, 93(7):892-5, July 1983.

Article: (Abstract) "Sinus Wall Reconstruction for Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence: A Standardized Surgical Procedure for a Range of Radiographic Findings," Dr. DJ Eisenman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Otology Neurotology, 32(7):1116-9; September 2011.

Article: (Abstract) "Awake Embolization of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum Causing Pulsatile Tinnitus: Simultaneous Confirmative Diagnosis and Treatment," Park YH, Kwon HJ, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Sep;17(3):376-9. Epub 2011 Oct 17. (NEW!)

Article: "A New Therapeutic Procedure for Treatment of Objective Venous Pulsatile Tinnitus," Sanchez TG, Murao M, Medeiros HRT, Kii M, Bento RF, Caldas JG, et al. Int Tinnitus J. 2002;8(1):54-57.

Article: "Glomus Tympanicum," The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 362:e66, Number 22, June 3, 2010.

Article: "Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus Following an Upper Mediastinal Lymph Node Resection," Wang YZ, Boudreaux JP, Campeau RJ, Woltering EA, South Med J. 2010 Apr;103(4):374-7.

Article: (Abstract) "Dissection of the Internal Carotid Artery After SCUBA-Diving: A Case Report and Review of the Literature," Franz Hafner, MD,* Thomas Gary, MD,* Froehlich Harald, MD,* Ernst Pilger,* Reinhard Groell, PD,w and Marianne, Brodmann* "Neurologist. 17(2):79-82, March 2011. (NEW!)

Article: "Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula," Bobby S. Korn, M.D., Ph.D., and Kang Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2011; 364:e15, February, 24, 2011. (WARNING: GRAPHIC IMAGES)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus Cured by Mastoidectomy," Duvillard C, Ballester M, Redon E, Romanet P., Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hôpital Général, Dijon, France, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, September 2004.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Symptom of Chronic Subclavian Artery Occlusion," Marcio Francisco Lehmann, Charbel Mounayer, Goetz Benndorf, Michel Piotin, and Jacques Moret, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:19601963, September 2005 (PDF).

Article: "Carotid Endarterectomy Relieves Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with Severe Ipsilateral Carotid Stenosis," J Kirkby-Bott, H.H Gibbs, European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 651-653, June 2004.

Article: "MR Angiography Imaging of Absence Vertebral Artery Causing of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Case Report," *Mehmet Cudi Tuncer; **Yekta Helbest Akgül & *Özlen Karabulut,* Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbak¹r, Turkey.** Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Özel Diyarbakr Hospital, 21100, Diyarbakr, Turkey, International Journal of Morphology, v.28 n.2 Temuco Jun. 2010."

Article: "Endovascular Treatment of Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm Presenting as Devastating Pulsatile Tinnitus. A Case Report and Review of Literature." Mehanna R, Shaltoni H. Morsi H, Mawad M., Interv Neuroradiol. 2010 Dec;16(4):451-4. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

"Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by an Aneurysm of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus: A New Case Report and Review of Literature," Lenck S, Mosimann PJ, Labeyrie MA, Houdart E., Department of Neuroradiology, hôpital Lariboisière, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France, J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct;39(4):276-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Sep 29. (NEW!)

Article: "Intractable Tinnitus and Sensorineural Deafness Cured by Surgical Correction of Coarctation of Aorta," S. Rathinam, A.M. Pettigrew, J.C.S. Pollack, Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 3:431-433 (2004).

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus," Don McFerran FRCS Consultant Otolaryngologist Essex County Hospital, Colchester, British Tinnitus Association, October 2007.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus and Dural Arteriovenous Malformation (Dural AVM)," G. A. J. Morrison, The Journal of Laryngology & Otology (1989), 103:1073-1075 Cambridge University Press (ABSTRACT).

Article: "Medical Mystery: Giving Birth Didn't Ease a Woman's Dangerous Hypertenstion," Sandra G. Boodman, The Washington Post, October 17, 2011.

Article: "That Noise Wasn't Just Tinnitus," Sandra G. Boodman, Special to The Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Article: "What's That Noise In Her?" H. Lee Kagan, Discovery Magazine, January 2006. (About a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and her doctor whose patience and persistence paid off).

Article: "The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2009

Article: "Diseases and Conditions/ Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)," Cleveland Clinic. Lists symptoms, details, treatments, and resources including Whooshers.com.

Article: Unraveling Pulsatile Tinnitus in FMD: A Report of the United States Registry For Fibromuscular Dysplasia."

Video: "A Rare Disease That May Be Underdiagnosed," Thomas M. Burton, June 26, 2009 (Hear an example of a whooshing sound in this short video)

Whooshers.com Pulsatile Tinnitus Sounds (Real Ones Recorded by Real Whooshers!)

Audio: Having trouble describing the sound you hear to others? Listen to this collection of sounds that whoosh and see if you can find a match to yours! Demonstrations: Heart Sounds & Murmurs, from the University of Washington Department of Medicine

Whooshers.com Review: SleepPhones- Soft, comfortable headphones to help mask the whoosh for a good night's sleep.

Replace "ringing" with "whooshing," and here it is: our theme song.